The mission of the ARIZONA BUDDHIST TEMPLE is to encourage Sangha:
1) to learn the joyful and compassionate teachings of Amida Buddha;
2) to practice these teachings in their daily lives; and
3) to share the teachings with others.
All beings be happy. May they be joyous and live in safety. All living beings, whether weak or strong, tall or short, big or small, visible or not visible, near or far away, already born or yet to be born. May all beings be happy.
May no one deceive or look down on anyone anywhere, for any reason. Whether through feeling angry or through reacting to someone else, may no one want another to suffer. May all beings be happy.
Sunday, August 4th
10:00 am – Dharma Summer Service
Open to Public
Sunday, August 11th
Sunday, August 18th
10:00 am – Dharma Summer Service
Open to Public
Sunday, September 1st
Sunday, September 7th and 8th
Monshu Visiting in Los Angeles, CA
Sunday, September 15th
10:00 am – Dharma Service
Open to Public
Please join us for some quiet sitting, chanting, and guided meditation. Most sessions last from 10 to 20 minutes. Sit in one of our comfortable chairs, borrow one of our zafus or bring your own!
-see above schedule for meeting times-
The official podcast of the Arizona Buddhist Temple hosted on SoundCloud. The purpose of this cast is to spread the teachings of the Dharma and provide different insights into the teachings of the Buddha. Every cast is a brief introduction of Buddhist concepts, followed by a Dharma message written by one of the temple ministers.
Rev. Lynn Sugiyama
Sensei Vonn Magnin
Sensei Mike Tang
Rev. Gregory Gibbs
Warmth in the Summer
In Arizona we have little occasion to complain about the lack of warmth in the summer. Still, genuine human warmth is crucial to our enjoyment of any season, central to the endurance of any challenges. So, I hope you are warm this summer.
The Arizona Buddhist Temple community has suffered terrible losses in the last few years. Every community must face losses of its members through death. Death is, as we always note, part of life, inseparable from life. Yet, this community has lost too many important friends and leaders in the last three years. It is painful when key lay leaders pass on in their 90’s. It is almost unbearable to have to separate from our friends in their 60’s, 50’s or their 40’s with almost no warning. I am very sorry for this sadness. We must, all of us, pick up and go on. How do we do that?
We teach of a Vow that guarantees our Enlightenment. This promised Awakening is not just a benefit for us, it will benefit everyone we are close to, everyone we have touched. It will benefit those close to us who are living. Could it benefit those we love who have passed on before us? … Absolutely, it can, will and does do so!
My aunt Ruth died too young. My mother had an average life-‐span, but had to drop out of high school in 10th grade to support her family as a switch-‐board operator. What can I do for them now? Two things. Firstly, I understand them as enwrapped in the Buddha’s promise of complete fulfillment for all [Hon Gan]. The Awakened consciousness of Buddhahood will bring the completeness that was lacking for them in their lives. How? I won’t worry about that just now. I trust in the Vow of Universal Liberation to catch them before they fall. Secondly, I extend the caring to my sons that the grandmother and great aunt they never met would have liked to. When you can’t directly do for a deceased friend or relative, -‐ do for the others. I hope you will be warm this summer.
Kris Nakashima - July and August 2019
It may be the height of the summer heat here in Arizona, but I hope everyone has finally found the time to relax and chill. The summer season is for many, one of the slower times of the year, which makes it one of the most convenient times to travel. In fact, I am writing this July article in early-June as I prepare for a journey with the Jr. YBA, their advisors, parents, and other temple members on a long-awaited journey to the islands of Japan. Land of the Rising Sun, birthplace of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, a wealth of history, culture, architecture, cuisine, fine art, and a 64.6 feet high transforming Gundam robot statue.
Oh! did I mention that I am writing this July/August article in the early June long before we even depart, yet you will only read this soon after we have already returned from our voyage? Well that is correct, for you see I write these articles long ahead of time by using my supreme powers of prediction and making vague but credible statements about the near future!
So now that you know my deep dark secret I would to thank in advance, our wonderful hosts at Shosonji Temple in Gifu, who spared no expense in making this a trip to remember, and our friends at the Nishi Hongwanji in Kyoto. Most of all though we should thank Beverly Matsumoto and Mamiko Sugiyama for helping put together this amazing journey for the Jr. YBA. It takes a lot of work to make travel arrangements for such a large group of travelers to a foreign land, so a big thanks to you guys again.
On Sunday July 7th we will be having our Shotsuki-hoyo service, which will provide for both the months of July and August. This will also signal the beginning of our Dharma Summer Services which will be held every other Sunday until September 15th when normal temple services resume. So please keep an eye on the Temple Schedule during these next few months, so you don’t show up only to realize we are actually closed on that day.
Lastly, I would like to thank everyone who attended our annual Obon festival in June, especially our guests from out of state who traveled very far to party and dance under the blazing Arizona sun. It was quite a lot of work to put everything together, so I want to thank all our volunteers on Saturday who helped make sure the event went on without a hitch. Ours is not the only Obon festival however, for the entire Southern District will be hosting Obon Festivals all across the southwest. So why not check out the SD Obon Season Schedule, take a weekend off, and visit our friends all around Southern California and beyond. Safe travels and have a wonderful Summah!
Arizona Buddhist Temple Women's Club
We would like to thank everyone who helped with the preparation of the Chicken Katsu Bento for Obon. Also thank you to those who brought their favorite desserts or gave a monetary donation for the pastry sale and to those who set-up and helped with the Japanese Flea Market.
The ABT Thrift Store is in its third year now. Thank you to everyone who helped and donated items for the store. We are always accepting donations. The AZ BWA is in the process of purchasing two new electric mochi machines; and, along with the Parents Club, purchase summer ministers’ robes for Vonn Magnin, Sensei and Michael Tang, Sensei. Thank you to Mamiko Sugiyama for handling the purchases of these items in Japan and ensuring the delivery to AZ. We will also be replacing and installing a new grease trap in the temple kitchen. This is all possible from the sale of items in the thrift store. Please visit us and look around, you never know what treasures you might find. Store hours are Saturdays & Sundays, 10:00am-3:00pm. Please verify that the store is open as it might be closed because of holidays or temple activities.
The next BWA meeting will be on Sunday, September 22, at 9:00 am.
Birthday Sunday: July 7th
Birthday Cake: Tang Family
Chairing in April: Jr. YBA and Adults
Have a wonderful summer! Our first class of the 2019/2020 school year will be Sunday September 15th. This summer will be hot, so please stay hydrated, wear sunscreen and have fun!
Obon: Please join us on June 8th in the evening for Obon dancing and on June 9th for our Obon service.
Congratulations to the Graduates!
This year’s scholarship recipient winner was Emiko Jay. She has received the Chuck Matsumoto Memorial Scholarship. We would like to share her essay below. Congratulations Emi!
Q: What is an example of a time when you had a hardship that you overcame by the Jodo Shinshu and Buddhism teachings?
My life has often felt as if I am landing in an airplane feeling the jolt of the brakes pushing me--and the plane-- back, preventing me from stopping. I need to hold on long enough to push through the pressure and then everything will run smoothly. Finally, I can walk through those plane doors to a new day.
Growing up in a predominantly white area I have always viewed myself as not “White” enough. At age two I was adopted from China; and by having no connection to my Chinese roots, I never felt “Chinese” enough. However, the small Asian community I am connected to comes from temple. Because most members of the temple are Japanese, it has resulted in me never feeling “Japanese” enough either. It didn’t seem like I had a solid place to feel accepted and at peace with who I was. Consequently, I have always felt as if I would never be good enough for anything. This mindset was the catalyst for the constant cycle of trying to prove my worthiness to everyone.
In my junior year of high school I moved across the country from Arizona to Connecticut. I was no longer competing against my life long friends and acquaintances anymore. Instead, they were complete strangers. The scrutiny of my new peers was at its peak; and with the addition of sitting alone in class everyday, I felt like an alien. I thought of how much easier it’d be to make friends if I was more White. If maybe I could have blue eyes. The snarky seniors in my math class whispering I would get an A, “because I was Asian.” All of this contributed to the shame I felt in being me.
I used to find escape from these feelings at temple surrounded by the teachings of the Buddha, but once I moved away, I felt as if I fell off the Eightfold path and was lost. Though I would feel more similar to everyone around me, the color of our skin didn’t mean cohesion. I know a variety of Japanese traditions and all about their history, but nothing about my Chinese roots. I’d sit and think, “If only I could be Japanese” during meditation, unable to clear my mind. Why couldn’t I be Japanese or White like everyone else? I felt isolated with no one to talk to, no place to fit in. That is until I became more heavily involved with the Jr.YBA, where I had the opportunity to meet more people like me, who were adopted into a Japanese lifestyle; we’d relate on feeling out of place and I finally felt understood and no longer alone.
Jr.YBA led me to the friends who would unconditionally stick by my side. When I’d fly to see them, it was refreshing to be able to open up about my feelings. Opening up for the first time, led me to accept my differences rather than be ashamed of them. The teachings of the Buddha that we would discuss and learn more about at the events, along with the camaraderie of everyone is where I learned that concept and importance of interdependence. Our similarities and differences are what allow us to grow closer and bring people together as a whole.
At a very young age we learn about The Golden Chain of Love. I will have it memorized in my mind forever. When I think back to learning it, I used to perceive it as just a children’s lesson that would not apply when I was an adult. For example, this line has shown much significance to my troubles as a teenager:
“... knowing what I know now, not only affects my happiness or unhappiness but also that of others...”
I have learned that it is not all about myself, that it is also about everyone that surrounds me; it is chain made up of a numerous people, all trying to attain the unanimous goal of being their best self. We are all connected in this chain of love, togetherness and unity, interdependence. Without everyone else’s group effort, there would be no chain. Each member of Jr.YBA is a part of this chain, including me. I am a part of something much bigger than myself, contributing to better myself and the world around me. Sometimes you just need to take a step back and let go of your ego and selfishness. I finally realized not everything is about me, everyone else has their own insecurities too and are suffering in their own ways. I decided to stop dwelling on how my differences hurt me and ‘what could be’ to what it is and bettering myself.
With that push forward I began joining more clubs to put myself out there. I stopped focusing on what people think of me because of what I look like, but how they’d think of me based on who I was. A year of my life wasted, being isolated with no one in class to talk to. What I needed to figure out earlier was that it doesn’t hurt to try; the worst that could happen is they don’t like you. In certain classes I wasn’t scared to talk in front of the class and participate anymore; I needed to stop caring and set myself free.
I learned you can’t do everything alone, and that’s okay. Life begins with ignorance, uncertainty, and it definitely has its fair share of difficulties, but it will always find a way to make sure you do walk through those plane doors to a new day. Without the acceptance and love I found through the teachings of the Buddha I don’t know where I would be; I am so thankful to be apart of such a supportive and caring community.
Dharma School Kid of the Month
Our Dharma School Kid of the Month is Sean Belcheff! Sean made a wonderful picture about family! Great job Sean!
Japanese American Citizens League, Arizona Chapter
Announces Flower Growers Memorial on Baseline Road
PHOENIX, AZ— On October 20, 2019, the Japanese American Citizens League, Arizona Chapter (JACL-AZ) in collaboration with the Circle K Corporation and the City of Phoenix, will unveil a memorial to the Japanese American farmers who grew flowers on Baseline Road for over 50 years. The memorial will be located at the northwest corner of 40th Street and Baseline Road and will include photographs of the fields and a short history of the Japanese American families who lived and farmed along Baseline Road.
Funded and installed through a donation from the Circle K Corporation, the memorial was conceived and included during the master plan redesign of the Baseline area. Historian Pamela Rector and former JACL-AZ president Ted Namba worked with the City of Phoenix and Circle K to ensure that the vision of the memorial was fulfilled.
The unveiling will take place on October 20, 2019 at 10 am at the northwest corner of 40th Street and Baseline Road and will be followed by a reception at Baseline Flower Growers, 3801 E. Baseline Road, Phoenix 85042.
Contact: Kathy Nakagawa, Board Member, Japanese American Citizens League-AZ Chapter, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, phone: (602) 373-7322
AZBT Wants YOU!
We are looking for additional volunteers for the Toban schedule. The Temple needs more people to help keep our Hondo and associated facilities clean. Right now the schedule is 7 groups rotating every other week with 3 people in a group. The cycle is about every 2 months.
It takes about 1 hour to vacuum the "Hondo" (Main Hall) area and mop and clean the restrooms and kitchen. We would appreciate any availability anyone has to help keep our Temple clean.
To sign up or for more information, please contact Mine Tominaga at
480-‐838-‐3057 or see her at Sunday services.
Arizona Buddhist Temple Board Members 2018
I have been coming to temple regularly since my senior year of high school. I have
childhood memories of coming to temple for Obon and Hanamatsuri. I met my now
husband through the Temple and we have been happily married now for 6 years.
Chuck Matsumoto helped Mike and I fulfill the Temple roles we now have today.
We hope to serve our Sangha to the best of our abilities. We are grateful for the
temple community and hope to continue to aid in spreading the dharma for future
I really had an awesome experience attending the Buddhist Temple in San Jose during my youth years and Jody & I want our children, Lauren and Kendall, to have the same. Many of my best friends are from the temple and from the YBA. I enjoy and appreciate the Dharma talks and learning Buddhism. I value the friendships made and building relationships with the Sangha.
84 still young and healthy. BSEE from ASU, retired computer HW designer, married 55 years to only wife Kathryn and have one daughter, Sandra. ABT Board member for about 37 years and counting.
I have been attending services at the Arizona Buddhist Temple since I was little, long before I can even remember. My family is originally from the Big Island of Hawai'i, having associated mainly with the Honpa Hongwanji Hilo Betsuin as well as the Puna Hongwanji. My parents after having lived in Hawai'i, Saipan, and California for a number of years, eventually moved to Arizona where I was born. The youngest of my siblings, I grew up in Chandler for most of my youth until I started High School where I then lived in Las Vegas for a few years before eventually returning to Arizona to attend Art School, where I graduated with a Bachelors in 2007. Even when I was living in Las Vegas, I would regularly travel with my parents to Phoenix to participate in Arizona Jr. YBA activities., in addition to Obon, the Arizona Matsuri, Hanamatsuri, Potlucks, and regular Dharma Services.
These days I work as an editor for a film and video company in the east valley along with freelance graphic design as a side gig. I also manage the AZ Temple Website, so let me know if you feel like posting something cool! I consider many in the Sangha as my friends and family as well, having encouraged me throughout my lifetime to maintain an open mind, a compassionate heart, and to seek a greater understanding of the world around us.... hmm does that sound too corny?
I have been a member at our Temple for 11 years. I have been happily married to
Vonn Magnin for the last 21 years. I have two beautiful boys: James and Lance. I
have been a kindergarten teacher for the last 21 years. I really enjoy being a member
of our Temple and the community.
I am a second generation native Arizonan. I have lived in the Valley all my life.
My favorite reading is science fiction novels.
Assistant Treasurer, Finance
The first time I came to the Temple was with my then girlfriend Enid Sugiyama for an Obon dance where I sort of learned how to dance the Tanko-Bushi. Over the next
few years, we would attend occasional services on special occasions, but we did not
begin to attend regularly until our daughter Ehsa was born. (I will never forget the
generosity of the temple members during Enid’s baby shower). When Kaoru was not
feeling well and Enid was expecting Nicholas, Sugiyama Sensei, two-year old Ehsa
and I would attend service and have lunch at Cherry Blossom afterwards. Over the
years we have made many good friends and memories while participating in Temple
activities, road trips and events and we hope to continue to contribute to the Temple
for many years to come.
Member at Large
My name is Lorenzo Frausto and my family and I have been coming to temple for
about 4 years. My wife, Suzanne, found out about temple through the booth at
Matsuri and we immediately liked it after our first visit. I have lived in Arizona my
whole life and am an immigration attorney. I watch too many movies.
Member at Large
I am a last year pharmacy student whose temple attendance probably predates my
birth. Seeing the involvement of my family and the support of my community has
shaped the person who I have become, and I want to help give back to the community that has given me so much. When I am not doing artwork, design work, or home work, you can find me watching the latest Korean dramas. Please feel free to stop by and say hi or contact me with any questions!
Memorial Services for 2018
It is never easy to lose someone we love. Unfortunately, everyone has to go through this event. Even though we grieve for our family member who is dying, as Shin Buddhists we believe that they become awakened to the heart and mind of Amida Buddha and at the time of death they are directed to the Pure Land by the Amida Buddha. There, they join the ranks of the truly settled where they attain Nirvana, the place of eternal bliss and tranquility. (Collected Works of Shinran, pg 153, 1997). They have attained Buddhahood, and it is taught that our loved ones then return to this world to teach and guide us to the Pure Land.
The memorial services are for the living because they are opportunities for us to remember our loved one and to listen to the Buddhist teachings. The memorial should not be considered to be a burden to the family and grudgingly planned. It should be planned from the heart. In this manner, the memorial service can be conducted without ill feelings and the Dharma message can be clearly heard. Memorial services can be planned this year if your loved ones passed away during the years in parentheses listed below:
1st Circuit (2017)
3rd Cycle (2016)25th Cycle (1984)
7th Cycle (2012)33rd Cycle (1976)
13th Year (2006)50th Cycle (1969)
17th Year (2002)100th Cycle (1919)
If you have any questions, please call the temple at 602-278-0036. Thank you.
Buddhism In My Life
By Sara Jay
Since I was 5 years old, I have been attending the Arizona Buddhist Temple on Sunday’s, as well as attending seminars and conferences in Los Angeles in the Bay Area for the Jr. Youth Buddhist Association. Because of my dedication to Buddhism, you may think I completely rule out any other religion. However, my father has taught me the complete opposite. The many teachings I have learned, only sought to teach me that everyone in this world is made up of events that make them different and unique from each other. However, our connections to each other, interdependence, make us a unifying force in the world. Our differences are not meant to make us defy each other. They are meant to contribute to a grander force that will better the world and make a more peaceful place. By following the Eightfold Path, I have been able to see the brighter light and that you make your own path. By doing so, I have pursued a more open lifestyle, accepting the change I see in the world instead of running from it.
One of the most substantial events in my Buddhist life that helped me to become who I am today is my first leadership conference at Nishi Buddhist Temple my freshmen year. It was an event that brought us so much closer to one another in a period of hours. We were in a room with posters around us that read: school, friends, family, economic status, the future, yourself, etc. Then the administrator would say, “go to the side of the room that makes you feel secure.” Because of this, I was able to witness who felt most comfortable at home, and who was most comfortable with their friends. Then they would say, “go to the side of the room that you hide from the world.” This was the point that made me said. I saw people at ever poster. Some were insecure about themselves, others who lacked friends, and some who had troubles at home. This made me see that so many people lead different lives than us. We may know them as our friends from YBA, but that is only one small, minute part of their life. Similar to what we see in everyday society, you really cannot fathom what people are experiencing in their lives, as humans are very skillfull at picking and choosing what they express on the outside.
The teachings I have learned from seminars, conferences, and weekly Dharma service discussions have taught me that each and every individual is different. There are aspects of our lives that intertwine us, but the events, people we have met, and places we visit separate us from being identical. I learned that there are reasons why some one may have said a rude comment, or why someone chooses to be extremely quiet in school. We should not judge them for this, as we most likely express some of these habits ourselves. But if we can learn to identify and express understanding towards one another, then we will only better ourselves and the world as a whole. Overall, Buddhism has taught me that diversity is a beneficial attribute, and we should rejoice in its presence instead of shying away from it.
What Reincarnates: A Clear Explanation
I have received valuable responses to my article, “Buddhist Peace—Before, After, and During This Life”, (Prajna, November, 2016; and the British journal, Pure Land Notes #30, December, 2016). The problem of traditional Buddhist doctrine simultaneously upholding the notion of no-self (anātman) and the contradictory notion of reincarnation has been an object of sustained contemplation for me and a topic of discussion with Dharma friends for years. One Dharma friend directed me to the work of Ian Stevenson. Another Dharma friend claimed that the Buddha simply left us with a mystery regarding the simultaneous assertion of reincarnation and denial of substantial selves. So, with help from my friends and the Larger Sutra, I pressed on, trying to make sense of this “mystery” until, at last, discovering a satisfactory explanation that conforms to Siddhārtha Gautama’s rational methodology and to his great insight into the issue of impermanence: It is relationships—most technically, patterns of relatedness—that reincarnate, not individuals. For humans, especially, patterns of relatedness between our genes (biology), memes (communications culture), and extended phenotypes (material culture) reincarnate. This view takes the Buddha’s assertion of no-self seriously. Also…
• It explains all of the phenomena related to testimonies of reincarnation, including visitations from dead loved ones, without positing survival of individual personhood after death. Think of patterns of relatedness rippling across regions and generations, much like the hundredth monkey effect.
• Relationships exist between the “extremes” of pairs (or groups) of subjectivities. Therefore, relationships accord with the principle of the Middle Path. And, as such, relationships are not accessible to the grasping or calculating mind. Relationships are homeless. Relationships do not dwell exclusively in this or that personality, but visit them all.
• If patterns of relatedness persist, life after life, then the unique personalities involved in a given relationship are merely – and wonderfully, and deliciously – incidental, accidental, finite, mortal, evanescent, special. From the gratuitous aid of a stranger to a loving life-long relationship, the “and” of Martin Buber’s “I and Thou” spontaneously manifests, ever fresh and alive, as the dependent arising of mutually-acknowledging subjectivities.
Furthermore, relatedness (rather than personalities) reincarnating is falsifiable. Our relationships with others—whether alive, dead, or fictional—already reincarnate from instant to instant, so we can empirically test the correctness of this view at any time. It is not persons, but relationships that are reborn each instant. It is patterns of relatedness that account for personalities, and that “return” over and over again in the “return to earth-school until getting it right and graduating from the wheel of samsara” analogy; for example, centuries-old conflicts that still persist today.
This view puts to rest worrying about what happens after we die. Liberated from such ontological anxieties, we are free to focus on peaceful and happy relationships (which is what we really are), rather than obsess about the right-or-wrong, he-said-she-said, rule-bound, tit-for-tat exchanges within relationships—whether generous or mean-spirited. Am I so mighty? No matter how great my self-cherishing, my precious identity, my spiritual ego, my “annoying humanity” (as my wife calls it), I am still going to face the same oblivion as Shelley’s “Ozymandias.” Yes, it is true that everything we think, say, and do matters a great deal, and we are all “responsible for our actions,” as we robotically remind ourselves. But when we misunderstand a self (whether our own or another’s) as an atomistic automaton, rather than a complex assemblage of relationships, we fall into error. When we attack another, we never just attack an individual being, we attack an entire network of relationships. Likewise, when we love another, a wondrous union of relational love flows through us into the midst of another wonderful gathering of relationships, affecting untold revolutions of “peace and happiness” (see Dharmākara’s thirty-third vow).
Ultimately, then, it is our relationships that really matter. Relationships are powerful. Individual identities only seem so. Shin Buddhism has a wonderful term that helps us understand relationships, rather than individuals, as the locus of life-activities, and even of consciousness: “Other Power” (Tariki). Other Power undulates through friendships, studentships, parenting, devotion, pastoral care, diplomacy, charity, etc., and also through our relationships with food, technology, and other non-human beings we encounter in the world.
When understanding patterns of relatedness, and not individual persons, as that which “reincarnates,” the term, Sangha, and Shinran’s notion of Dharma friends (ondobo/ondogyo), come to mean so much more, and the Shin canon can be heard in a much deeper key
1) Amida Buddha selects all helpless, hopeless, foolish, ordinary beings drowning in the karmic ocean of birth and death as the targets of his inconceivable Vow. This means that we have a special connection with all other beings as fellow targets of Amida’s Vow. How, then, could we not naturally aspire to regard all others with the same compassion expressed in Amida’s Vow “to remove the roots of the afflictions of birth and death of all” (Larger Sutra 1:6)?
2) In his “causal stage,” as the bodhisattva, Dharmākara, Amida Buddha learned an eternal practice from his teacher, Lokeśvararāja. This practice is called kuyō (Skt., puja, lit. “worshipping with offerings;” see, e.g., the twenty-fourth vow). Kuyō involves visiting countless Buddha lands, making offerings to them all, and learning relational wisdom from the “good and evil natures of heavenly and human beings living there.” The practice of kuyō emerges spontaneously from the relationship between Lokeśvararāja and Dharmākara, spreading out like rebounding ripples in a pond, expressing itself as the Vow to save all beings, to make each and every one a Buddha. Identified especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth vows, and supported by all forty-eight vows, the relationship Amida has with all beings, the kuyō selected as his eternal practice, manifests in his Name.
From these two relational templates, we develop an awareness of every being we encounter as: 1) a fellow target of Amida’s boundless compassion, and, thereby, 2) a Buddha in the making, or a teacher of relational wisdom. Amida’s Vow-mind, then, models the correct attitude to maintain towards every being, in every moment, in every incarnation.
For further study, see: the third, sixth, and ninth chapters of the Tannishō; and the third, fourth, fifth, and forty-fifth vows of the Larger Sutra, reading the events of past lives as history, and the beautiful, homogenous golden appearance of humans and devas as relational rather than as personal forms of being, i.e., as love.